Back in 2009, Liel Maghen participated in a year-long program at the Arava Institute, where students from Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority studied side-by-side. This experience was both familiar and completely foreign. As his father was born in Libya, Liel was increasingly able to pick out familiar Arabic words, while at the same time realizing his ignorance about his peer’s lives and histories.
These experiences led him to move to Jerusalem. “Jerusalem is where people have no choice but to live together, side-by-side, interdependently,” he reflects. “I wanted to immerse myself in its shared urbanism while learning more about city and regional history.”
Liel enrolled at Hebrew University, majoring in political science and Middle Eastern studies. However, he struggled to align his experiences in the Arava with those in Jerusalem. He became involved in community initiatives that bridged the two parts of the city – East and West. Yet Liel felt that the East Jerusalem Palestinian community and their needs were often overlooked.
When Liel heard about Glocal, he knew it was for him. He applied and began the program immediately after earning his BA.
“Glocal exposes students to micro- and macro-approaches to community development, balancing theoretical knowledge with practical skills. This combination gave me a wide understanding of how to be a catalyst for sustainable change in people’s lives.”
Liel hoped to do his Glocal internship in the Palestinian Authority or Jordan, but geo-political events led him to travel to Buenos Aires. There he focused on inner-city tensions, exploring ways to empower marginalized communities through mechanisms of urban development.
He returned to Jerusalem brimming with ideas and was appointed as co-director of a local non-profit that promotes inter-communal and regional initiatives. In partnership with the Davis Institute, Liel began bringing together Jerusalemites from across the city to envision a different future for the city and form working groups aimed at improving living conditions in different neighborhoods.
Liel also began working at Glocal, advising students and alumni, editing the annual magazine, and teaching a course on gender and community development in Jerusalem.
A few years later, Liel and colleagues from East Jerusalem partnered with local activist Tareq Nassar and Muslala (a local non-profit). Together they founded Sinsila, an East Jerusalem community center that takes an ecological approach to urbanism and offers a wide variety of courses: urban agriculture, permaculture, honey cultivation, urbanism, a women’s cooperative, and much more. Program alumni run and sell their products and the center’s café, while other alumni have established green roofs and maintain beehives across East Jerusalem. In total, over 100 women now have a sustainable, ecological income.
At some point, Liel reflected on all he’d accomplished. “Glocal taught me to recognize power dynamics that exist between societies. Only when such dynamics are recognized it is possible to support a true change and one that empowers local leadership and inter-dependence.”
He added: “Glocal taught me how to harness resources and skills to foster local leadership – and crucially, the importance of then taking a step back. For Sinsila (and every change) to be sustainable, it must be run from within the community, while we must understand our role in service and in support of local needs.”
Liel Maghen presenting at a UN conference on urbanization in Abu Dhabi
Shir Gilo loves Jerusalem – and she’s always looking for ways to make the city better. Better for its residents, better for communities, and better for future generations.
She’d always felt drawn to Jerusalem, and after moving to the city decided to enroll at the Hebrew University and pursue a BA in Jewish Studies and Hebrew Language. She began working for Tene Yerushalmi, a local leadership organization that connects young adults to the city of Jerusalem through learning, tours, and social and community involvement. It was a natural fit, as she’d always been a social activist.
Within a few years, Shir realized that rather than advocate and protest, she wanted to be sitting around the table where decisions were being made. To this end, she decided to pursue a master’s degree, to take her career to the next level.
She chose Hebrew University’s master’s program in Urban Planning and joined the Urban Clinic. She’d seen the planning processes from the other side – working in neighborhoods and communities undergoing urban regeneration. She knew that planning was never just about buildings – it was about the people and communities that occupied the building. Building community, fostering trust, guiding processes – these were things Shir knew how to do, and did well.
During her studies, she began examining the history and role of Jerusalem’s open spaces, primarily to the west and north-west of the city. These unbuilt areas were intentionally designed to enhance the experience of ascending to Jerusalem – a city on a hill. The stark demarcation between the open spaces and the built environment made both more unique.
Today, Shir is the director of Save the Hills of Jerusalem, which is fighting to save precisely the open spaces she studied. Her confidence to lead this organization is largely thanks to her master’s degree. Besides gaining planning skills, her research took her deep into the historical record, as well as into meetings with contemporary stakeholders and planners.
As a graduate student, Shir went to Copenhagen on an exchange program, where she saw the difference good planning makes. Pedestrian-friendly streets, small shops on every corner, and biker-friendly trash bins – it was truly an eye-opening experience.
“The Urban Clinic gave me tools to examine the build environment. I realized everything we see – someone planned it. And we can always plan differently. There’s no reason Jerusalem can’t be as bike friendly as Copenhagen. If we plan a dense city, with good public transport and prioritize pedestrians, we will have vibrant neighborhoods and reduce reliance on private cars. If we build up the existing city, there will be no need to expand Jerusalem at the expense of its beautiful open spaces.”
To read about Shir’s experience in the Urban Clinic, click here.
Shir Gilo first encountered the Urban Clinic when she participated in a public tour, and it left a great impression upon her. She loved how the Clinic connected theory with reality on the ground, integrating people’s lives with planning. Later, when choosing a graduate program, Shir found herself drawn to the possibility of combining theory and practice, developing social solutions alongside physical ones – and creating a better city.
She enrolled in the Hebrew University’s master’s program in Urban Planning and eventually took the Urban Clinic’s course. She decided to work on a project that had been proposed to the Clinic – developing a solution for Pisgat Zeev, neighborhood in northern Jerusalem plagued by morning traffic jams.
After some serious legwork, observing and meeting with stakeholders, it was decided to focus on two adjacent schools, where administrators and parents were committed to encouraging walking.
“There are many benefits to walking to school. The kids become more familiar with their neighborhood, it can be a social experience, they learn to solve problems, develop independence, take responsibility, get exercise, and so much more. Worldwide, it is common for students to walk to school, often in organized groups. There is no reason that Israeli schoolchildren cannot walk like their peers in Japan, England, and Canada.”
Shir, working with her classmate, Devora, got to work: They plotted student addresses in a geographic information system (GIS), in order to identify the best possible route for the largest number of students, avoiding steep inclines. They distributed a questionnaire and learned that some kids already walked, while other parents were interested in making a change. At the same time, they learned that the neighborhood had walking paths, but these were situated on side streets, often set back from the road.
Ultimately, Shir and Devora identified three different walking paths – and suggested ways to improve each one. These ranged from physical changes (crosswalks, speed bumps), community adaptations (crossing guards, walking groups), and proposed regulations (speed limits, strict ticketing of cars parked on the sidewalk).
After such an intensive process, They submitted her proposals to Pisgat Zeev’s neighborhood planner. But Shir wasn’t done. She decided to write one of her seminar papers on encouraging walkability, specifically in hilly cities. Motivated to make an impact, she submitted her final paper to the neighborhood and regional planners, the Urban Clinic, and the Jerusalem municipality.
“The Urban Clinic is demanding; it sets very high standards. You can’t just sit back and learn – you need to work hard. Dr. Emily Silverman guided me every step along the way. It was, by far, the best experience I had at the Hebrew University.”
To read about Shir’s environmental work advocating for the Jerusalem hills, click here.
6:40am. A minibus pulls up, and twenty-six Hebrew University pile in. Some are ready to go, while others are still half-asleep. Everyone aboard, the minibus heads westward. As the sun rises, the students begin to chat, half Hebrew, half English.
The minibus heads to the Joseph Marguleas Experimental Farm near the Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment. The group is a mix of first year Israeli BSc students and international MSc students. Once a week, they travel to the Experimental Farm to work alongside farmers who immigrated to Israel from Ethiopia.
These farmers, aged 65-92, have been at their plots since dawn. Back in Ethiopia, they lived off the land, but this connection was broken when they moved to Israel. In 2016, Hebrew University Prof. Prof. Alon Samach offered plots to eight farmers, and the project took root. Today, the program has grown to include some forty farmers who tend to a variety of crops.
Once a week, the Hebrew University students work alongside the Ethiopian famers, as part of their degree program. In exchange for their help with the heavy lifting, the students gain hands-on experience. After tending to the crops, everyone comes together for a workshop.
Roi Alford is a second-year graduate student in the Agriculture, Natural Resources & Environment program at the Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment.
Roi grew up in the lower Galilee and has always loved nature. He was drawn to sustainability long before climate change was in the headlines, and thus pursued an undergraduate degree in biology. When he began exploring opportunities for graduate studies, he contacted Prof. Yael Mishael at the Hebrew University’s Smith Faculty.
From his first visit, Roi felt at home. The environment was welcoming, and the students and researchers immediately made him feel comfortable. Prof. Mishael’s lab works with nano-scale clay composites and polymers to remove pollutants from water; Roi is applying this technique to remove one particular toxin – Ochratoxin A – from wine and grape juice.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a naturally occurring toxin that is produced by certain molds, and it often plagues food. While a single dose is harmless, continued exposure may be carcinogenic and has been linked to kidney problems. In fact, current regulations ban anything more than the scantest traces of OTA in food. Since the toxin is capable of surviving pressing and fermentation, wineries are often forced to discard entire batches of grape juice and wine – wasting resources, time, and money.
Roi’s is working on developing a material that would filter out the toxin, resulting in a clean, healthy, and marketable product. One reason Roi’s work is so important is the apparent correlation between global warming and an increase in OTA – indicating that the problem will only get worse.
"The work at the Smith Faculty combines cutting-edge research and innovative thinking alongside the aim of making our world a better place. I feel lucky to be conducting my research in this environment. We were able to develop materials with the potential for industrial application, which would decrease food waste as well as improve public health."
" src="/profiles/openscholar/modules/contrib/wysiwyg/plugins/break/images/spacer.gif" title="<--break-->">Beit She’an, a small city in Israel’s periphery with a population of some 20,000 and located in the north at the meeting point of the Jordan River Valley and the Jezreel Valley, is known by many today as a site where infiltrations from Jordan used to occur. However, the name Beit She’an — the modern city was established in 1949 — has an illustrious ancient past that dates back to 4000 BCE and is mentioned in the Bible (I Samuel 31:10).
The ancient city’s location, amid fertile agricultural land and an abundance of springs in a mostly barren area at a then-international crossroads, meant that Beit She’an was a city of paramount importance in the biblical period and also later in the Byzantine period when it was the capital of the late Roman province which was known (circa 400 CE) as Palestina Secunda or NysaScythopolis. Today, the glorious remains of this forgotten past of the Roman and Byzantine periods — the Roman theater, mosaic floor, baths, colonnaded streets — are enclosed in the Beit She’an National Park and allow for a fascinating journey back through time.
The Beit She’an excavation project was initiated by the late Prof. Yoram Tsafrir who passed away in 2015. GTI Fund financial strategist Ofer Levin was a generous supporter of Prof. Tsafrir and his excavation, including towards the many years that he devoted to publishing the project’s final research reports.
Ofer Levin’s support for the project included providing the funds to locate and gather the relevant artifacts; and to recruit specialists to complete specific research of items such as ceramics, coins, inscriptions, engravings etc. In terms of publication, Volume 3A of this highly edifying project by Dr. Benjamin Arubas is currently in the advanced stages of editing; and the Hebrew University’s Institute of Archeology will be publishing an accompanying Qedem Report.
“The Hebrew University and its Institute of Archeology have been at the forefront of research in Israel for years. The Beit She’an excavation project reveals another aspect of the past and helps us gain a better and clearer understanding of the lifestyles of the ancient inhabitants of this country,” says Ofer Levin.
As the first shut-down went into effect, NGOs and national programs that serve at-risk youth were eliminated, including counselors, and social workers – leaving youngsters without anyone to turn to. Additionally, the first shutdown started right after Purim vacation, when many of the children, who study at boarding schools, were on break.
Confusion ensued. First, they were first told not to come back. Next they were told they could come back, on condition that they remain in their rooms, in isolation, for two weeks. As a result, many children decided not to return to school, remaining either in their at-risk homes or in the streets.
"I was removed from home and sent to a boarding school. But now the opposite is true – I’ve grown used to school and feel at home there, and you’re sending me back to the home that you removed me from."
- R, 17 years old
The Rights of Youth at Risk Clinic, together with the Ramat Gan College of Law’s clinic, filed case in the Supreme Court against the Ministry of Education. Even before the hearing, the MoE announced it would ease restrictions and allow for more flexibility.
The Street Law Project works with youngsters who have been convicted, as part of their court-mandated rehabilitation plan, as well as care cases – children removed from their homes due to abuse or neglect. The year usually ends with a large production: a mock trial, written by law students and the teens and staged before parents, probation officers, other guests, and judges – members of HU’s Faculty of Law.
This past year, 45 youngsters were in the program, divided into three groups. They participated in weekly workshops run by students in the Rights of Youth at Risk Clinic on the Mt. Scopus campus. The Coronavirus struck just as they were scheduled to begin preparing the mock trial.
During the shutdown, the law students tried to maintain contact via phone calls or Zoom, despite the teens differential access to technology and the internet. Within each group, a core of participants continued meeting, yet the mock-trial was a lost cause. The clinic encouraged the students to think of an alternative project, to end the year on a high note.
The group of East Jerusalem youth, led by law students Hanan Hneif, Francis Tuma, and Mona Gawi, decided to focus on case studies. They divided participants into smaller groups, and each analyzed a separate scenario dealing with sexual assault, fraud, freedom of expression, or the penal code. The teens outlined how the law required them to act, their rights, and more. At the group’s final meeting, which took place on campus, each group presented their case study and fielded questions.
Hanan, Francis, and Mona also prepared a game show to summarize the year and distributed certificates. Each teen was given the opportunity to share how the program had impacted them.
Law students Smadar Laufer and Adiel Zanzouri led a West Jerusalem group of teens. They were inspired by a question they’d posed earlier in the year, both to their peers and the teens: How do you see the law? While students saw the law as a tool for empowerment, the teens saw the law as controlling and belittling. Thus, the students asked the teens to think of a law they disagreed with and develop a legal argument to support their position. The topics ranged from animal rights, the LGBT community, and the mandate to wear a protective mask. The teens gained experience applying the law in support of their own beliefs. The event took place in the largest auditorium, enabling parents to support their children while also socially distancing.
In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.
- UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, article 3
In ordinary times, participants in the Rights of Youth at Risk Clinic offers legal aid and representation, run programs and youth centers, and advocate for policy reforms.
Yet these are not ordinary times. Without detracting from the Coronavirus as a public health threat, the pandemic has also claimed many social casualties. Some of its first victims were at-risk youngsters, whose already precarious position was further destabilized as Israel geared towards a shut-down. During the first shutdown (March-May 2020), the Rights of Youth at Risk Clinic rose to the occasion - more than once.
Contesting Fines for Being Outdoors
During the lock-down citizens were required to stay within 100 meters of their homes. For at-risk children, home may be an unstable, unsafe, or even non-existent place. As a result, many of these youngsters were fined hundreds of shekels for being outside. Besides an utter lack of understanding of these children’s circumstances, these fines are astronomically high for families who may rely on public housing or cannot always afford food. Adv. Shiran Reichenberg, who heads the clinic, along with others helped approximately 25 children combat their fines. Six months later, they have heard nothing. Recently, the clinic filed an official request with the police demanding an explanation where things stand.
"We shine the spotlight on those children and youngsters who are otherwise invisible – Corona or no Corona. Yet today their rights are being violated more than ever, and they are in dire need of protection. The Clinic’s role is to protect these children and speak up on their behalf."
- Adv. Shiran Reichenberg, Head of the Rights of Youth at Risk Clinic
To learn more about the Rights of Youth at Risk Clinic:
Over the last few years, the Clinic staff and students have been representing the children of a particular family in care cases (children removed from their homes due to abuse or neglect). Mere days before the lockdown, one the siblings was released from a psychiatric hospital, and he was determined to close educational gaps that had accrued. Within days, schools transitioned to online learning, but he lacked a computer through which to connect to his teachers and lessons.
Arielle Elkayam and Tair Atias, two law students familiar with the family, decided to help find a computer. They tried everything: the municipality, the family’s social worker, the Department of Welfare and Social Services – nothing. They tried every telephone number and email address associated with the public-private partnership A Computer for Every Child – nada.
Eventually they succeeded. A large high-tech company was donating old computers to needy students, and one reached Arielle and Tair’s client. But their search led them to realize that the Coronavirus had transformed unequal access to technology into unequal access to education. Thousands of Israeli children couldn’t realize their right to an education – and the State was unable, or unwilling, to step in.
The enormity of the challenge didn’t faze them. If anything, Tair and Ariel were even more determined to raise awareness and advance solutions. Together with a Hebrew University social work student named Zohar Galil, they are taking a two-fold approach.
First, by helping the Tamid Project – which was, at the time, one of the only organizations in Israel addressing this need. Run by Jerusalem teenagers who established the non-profit when they were 13, they have collected, refurbished, and distributed over 5,600 computers to needy families. The law students helped publicize the Tamid Project, including a visit to the Knesset and bringing local and national politicians to volunteer with the project.
Second, Ariel, Tair, and Zohar continued researching and collecting evidence of the problem with hopes of influencing policy. They discovered that the most comprehensive document submitted to the Knesset had been written by a University of Haifa legal clinic, which had also petitioned the Supreme Court on this matter, along with the Association of Civil Rights in Israel. The Hebrew University trio contacted the petitioners and shared everything they’d discovered about the scope of the problem in Israel and comparisons with other countries.
"We truly felt that we were implementing our clinical studies, bridging between the written law and the law in action. When we realized that many European governments spent tens of millions of Euros at the outbreak of the pandemic, while the Israeli government didn’t even have a plan, we knew we had to help ensure equal access to education. Thanks to the efforts of many, many people, the government now realizes the scope of the problem and is working to resolve it. We’re glad to have helped raise awareness, including providing information to the court petitioners."
Prof. Ofer Mandelboim is an immunology and cancer researcher at the Faculty of Medicine. His usual areas of interest include studying how viruses manage to evade detection by the immune system, including influenza, CMV, HIV/AIDS, HMPV, and more.
Very early in the pandemic, scientists discovered that the Coronavirus expresses spike proteins that bind to receptors (proteins) found on human lung cells – scientifically known as ACE2. After entering the cell, the virus uses human cells to replicate and spread, leading to symptoms (e.g. coughing) and the infection of additional patients.
Pieces of a Puzzle
It is helpful to think about viruses, receptors, and our immune system as pieces of a puzzle. Each virus has a specific shape, enabling it to exclusively bind with certain receptors. On the flip side, our immune system develops antibodies that are a perfect fit against the viruses and other pathogens it encounters, blocking their ability to infect our bodies.
Prof. Mandelboim is familiar with ways to employ decoy proteins to protect patients from autoimmune diseases and decided to tackle SARS-CoV-2 using the same approach. Along with PhD students Abigael Chaouat, Inbal Kol, Orit Berhani, and a team of researchers from the Israel Institute of Biological Research (IIBR), Prof. Mandelboim developed a two-part preventative treatment comprised of soluble proteins.
1) The first part is composed of the extracellular part of ACE2. This protein binds with the spike proteins of the Coronavirus, rendering them incapable of binding to the lungs and infecting our cells.
2) The second part binds to the ACE receptor, thereby preventing the virus from infecting the cells in our lungs.
Working with the IIBR, Prof. Mandelboim tested this treatment on cell cultures, and then on transgenic mice – using live Coronavirus. (The mouse ACE2 does not interact with the coronavirus spike protein and thus mice cannot be infected. Transgenic mice expressing human ACE2 have been developed as a rapid platform for research. In mice, infection inevitably leads to death). Prof. Mandelboim and his team, together with the IIBR, tested the components separately and combined. Between the two of them, the injected spike protein (blocking ACE2) was more effective, with a survival rate of 50%.
A Whole New Approach
This treatment is not a vaccine, because it does not activate the immune system to generate antibodies. Instead, it is a cure, because the proteins can hinder the spread of the infection and ultimately inhibit disease progression. It is an entirely new approach, which might prove an effective stopgap measure to simply halt the spread of the Coronavirus. Given that Prof. Mandelboim’s treatment is comprised of the actual proteins from our body and virus, it is probably safe to inject. Yet this is precisely the reason why the proteins and their production process cannot be patented – they are entirely naturally occurring.
"Looking ahead, the biggest challenge is mass-producing these proteins and beginning human trials. Both these are outside my scope of expertise, but I’m extremely hopeful because I’ve proven an easy, safe method of protection against Coronavirus infection."
Omri Rulf is studying towards a Master of Science in chemistry at the Hebrew University. As an undergraduate student of materials engineering, he explored 3D printing with conductive materials – research that left him hungry for more advanced challenges.
At the Institute of Chemistry, Omri joined a laboratory that studies the application of organic and inorganic materials to the fields of 3D functional printing, solar energy, and bio-medical systems.
Omri’s research focuses on developing new inks that can be used in digital light processing, a method of 3D printing that is activated by light. Current methods use photo (light) initiators, which are less healthy for medical purposes. Instead, Omri’s inks use thermal initiators, resulting in a healthier product.
"My research is progressing nicely, and we’ve already achieved a proof of concept. I’m excited to be at the forefront of such an innovative field, knowing that my research will be applicable to bio-printing, drug delivery systems, dentistry, and more.
Dr. Shahar Arzy is a cognitive neuroscientist at the Faculty of Medicine and a cognitive neurologist at the Hadassah Medical Center. In the time that has passed since the outbreak of the pandemic, two things have become clear: First, the Coronavirus isn’t going anywhere anytime soon, and even the much-anticipated vaccine may not be a silver bullet. Second, future pandemics may force us back into a Corona-era lifestyle. In Dr. Arzy’s eyes, the most significant change has been the physical distancing from other people, and especially loved ones, and, in particular, the social isolation of the elderly, chronically ill, and immunosuppressed.
"We know that certain populations are more susceptible to the Coronavirus. Yet in an attempt to physically protect them from disease, we’ve isolated them from their social support networks: their friends and families. This is especially true for retirees, whose social lives largely revolve around seeing people outside of their homes, and those suffering from cognitive impairments, who need external stimulation."
Me, Myself, and I – And Everyone Else
Dr. Arzy and his team at the Neuropsychiatry Lab at the Hebrew University set out to understand how to best help these vulnerable populations. In the lab, the researchers (including computer scientists, neuroscientists, psychologists, and clinicians) use functional neuroimaging (fMRI) and computational methods to understand the ways in which the brain identifies others in relation to the “self.” For example, in a study led by Dr. Michael Peer, then a PhD student in the lab, they used an algorithm to map subjects’ Facebook friends and then studied how the brain codes our social network, each friend’s proximity to our “self,” and each friend’s characteristics.
In the context of the Coronavirus, Mordechai Hayman, a brilliant electrical engineer and an MD-PhD student in the Neuropsychiatry Lab, asked how the brain interprets “social proximity.” He defined four groups and raised hypotheses of different ways in which they could be organized around, and in relation, to the “self.”
1) The “self” 2) Our closest circle of friends & family 3) Acquaintances (based on the notion that we evolved to live in groups of ~150 people, with whom we cooperate and rely on for our physical, social, and psychological needs) 4) Celebrities (a stranger with whom we feel close)
In the study, subjects performed a number of social tasks while undergoing fMRI scans. Analyzing the results with machine learning techniques, the researchers discovered two interesting things. First: our brains perceive celebrities as the farthest from our “self” and the real people in our lives (close friends and acquaintances), despite the ease at which we “connect” with celebrities through headlines and social media. Second: while asked to imagine different people in our lives, our brains made little distinction between significant others and acquaintances.
"The fMRI scans showed that our brains cannot be fooled – celebrities serve no social purpose in our lives and cannot be a stand-in for a social network during shutdowns. On the other hand, in certain aspects, our brain treats everyone we actually know similarly – regardless of the degree of involvement in each other’s lives."
Tools for Coping with Social Isolation
Today, digital platforms such as Zoom are heavily relied upon to socialize. Yet with all the advantages that technology brings to our life, it simply cannot replace real-life encounters. The most significant finding to emerge from Dr. Arzy and Mordechai Hayman’s study is the importance of all social ties, whether a neighborly check-in or chatting with an acquaintance at the grocery store. Another way to help combat social isolation is through tangible, 3D objects. For example, a grandchild’s art project can have a powerful impact – even if delivered by mail.
At the same time, given the prevalence of digital platforms and their immense potential for connecting people, Dr. Arzy aims to identity ways to tweak and improve these platforms, to optimize and monitor social engagement.
There’s an App for That
Dr. Arzy’s previous research on Alzheimer’s patients led him to develop a digital application that enables the mapping and quantification of social networks. The group is now working on creating a more extensive product, one that analyzes one’s social network while taking into account the proximity of family, digital skills, nature and frequency of contact, and more. This product will help remind members of a given network when and how to reach out, resulting in an optimized, tailor-made communication plan – based in the social ecology of the person in the center.
"The Coronavirus has disoriented our lives, and we all face insurmountable difficulties. Yet let us not forget those for whom disorientation is part and parcel of their daily lives. At the Hebrew University and Hadassah we have the privilege to be able to help these people through our clinical practice and research. We hope our efforts can contribute, even a little, to the well-being of these vulnerable population, now more than ever."
Prof. Miriam Schiff, Prof. Ruth Pat-Horenczyk, and Prof. Emeritus Rami Benbenishty study trauma at the Paul Baerwald School of Social Work and Social Welfare. They belong to the Resilience Research Group, which Prof. Pat-Horenczyk heads, and have a long history of collaborating. Therefore, it was a natural decision to conduct a joint study on the consequences of the Coronavirus crisis upon Hebrew University students, exploring their resilience and growth.
Their first study was conducted during the peak of the first wave. One aspect of the study focused on stress associated with media exposure to the Coronavirus, and revealed that media exposure and media-related stress can be perceived as possible risk factors for impaired functioning and coping. It has been submitted for publication.
"University students are not usually seen as a vulnerable group. But between losing their jobs, having their study routines and habits upended, not seeing their friends on campus, and many of them moving back home, students have been subjected to a variety of factors that may contribute to stress and difficulties in their functioning, education, and familial relations."
Close to Home: A Survey of Hebrew University Students
At the same time that the researchers were preparing their study, Hebrew University Rector, Prof. Barak Medina, and the Dean of Students, Prof. Guy Harpaz, contacted the researchers – to hear how students were coping and identify students who needed help. They opened the door to a University-wide survey, in which 4,700+ Hebrew University students across faculties and disciplines participated.
The study revealed the students’ pressing concerns. Their top three concerns were when the emergency situation would end, the virus’ rapid spread, and restrictions to their daily lives. On a personal level, students were worried about their families, financial matters, and loneliness. Yet despite these concerns, the more support the student received, the better they were able to cope.
"It is a badge of honor for the Hebrew University that students supported the University’s Coronavirus policies, much more than national or governmental policies. This may be due to the fact that these policies were tailored to their specific circumstances, while the University also reached out to offer academic, emotional, and financial support."
Interestingly, while Arab students and students in quarantine emerged as especially vulnerable, students who self-identified as either ultra-Orthodox or parents were more resilient.
Based on their findings, the researchers recommended creating a University support system to help address students’ emotional and academic needs, while taking steps to ensure that the students continue to have faith in the University’s policies.
Expanding the Study: In Israel & Abroad
This study inspired colleagues around the world, who have adopted and disseminated the Hebrew University researchers’ questionnaire among university students in Europe, South America, and the United States. They have already published a comparative study with Ukraine. The questionnaire has also been used at research universities and academic colleges across Israel.
The researchers are now conducting a second-stage study in conjunction with other research universities in Israel. To date, they have collected 14,000+ responses. Given the amount of time that has lapsed since the pandemic’s outbreak, its cumulative effect, and long-term consequences, the second-stage study will be expanded to include attitudes towards dropping out, emotional difficulties (e.g. depression and anxiety), coping, and personal growth.
"Although many students report emotional difficulties, many reported receiving support, trusting the university’s handling of the crisis, and showing growth under these difficult circumstances. We hope that by shedding light on the risk and protective factors that relate to the students’ ability to cope and their self-reported need for help can guide the development of appropriate support services."
Exploring Questions of Representation and Stereotypes
Renana Atia is a doctoral student in the Smart Family Institute of Communications at the Hebrew University. She was educated in both ultra-Orthodox and National Religious schools, and later completed her national service working with people from diverse backgrounds.
Moving between different worlds, Renana has always been interested in questions of representation – specifically, how the media (mis)represents certain groups (e.g., women, religious communities). She chose to study political science and communications at the Hebrew University, hoping to gain practical skills for creating social change. Yet early in her studies, she was drawn to research, as she discovered the importance and joy of methodologically studying social issues. By the end of her first year, she had decided to pursue a graduate degree.
Renana eventually earned a master’s degree in political communication with a minor in gender studies at the Lafer Center for Women and Gender Studies. At the same time, she began working as a teaching assistant for both undergraduate and graduate courses. Beyond gaining and honing her own teaching skills, Renana was thankful for the opportunity to help shape and guide the younger students in their own academic journeys.
"I study the cognitive motivation necessary for changing perceptions of stereotypes, and the possibility that individuals who do not adhere to stereotypes may contribute to minimizing inter-group tensions."
Her research will employ quantitative methods and be rooted in data from several countries, including Israel, the United States, and Germany. Renana greatly enjoys her studies and is particularly thankful for the Faculty of Social Sciences' support, which ranges from lectures on publishing, assistance editing English texts, and information about post-doctoral opportunities.
Outside of her studies, Renana practices archery and is involved in an organization that aims to increase women’s participation in the sport, including women who are either at-risk or come from lower socio-economic backgrounds.
Looking forward, she hopes for a career that combines research and teaching.
"The Hebrew University, and in particular the Faculty of Social Science, have provided me with amazing support, while also granting me the freedom to conduct my doctoral research. The Hebrew University has never ceased to challenge me.
Rapidly Identifying Molecules for a Coronavirus Drug
Dr. Amiram Goldblum is a Professor Emeritus of Computational Medicinal Chemistry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem School of Pharmacy - Institute for Drug Research. Among his many discoveries is his unique, prize-winning algorithm, Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE). (See box)
A Library of the Best Molecules
Prof. Goldblum applies the ISE classification algorithm to produce “libraries” of candidate drugs by focusing on the molecule’s chemical properties (rather than structure), while also calculating the chances of each molecule to perform as expected. In this way, it becomes possible to rapidly screen millions of existing molecules and identify the best ones for curing or treating COVID-19 patients.
"The algorithm is a statistical tool; it determines the likelihood that a given molecule will work as predicted. In past projects, the chances have ranged from 1:10 to 9:10 – but even at the lower end, the ISE algorithm is capable of doing more in less time than any single scientist could accomplish testing molecules in a lab, one by one."
- Prof. Goldblum
Prof. Goldblum’s computational discoveries will then be tested by the creative and innovative synthetic biology platform designed by Dr. Lior Nissim. The scientists will be able to test candidate molecules on viral proteins using engineered gene circuits. The most effective molecules, referred to as a “focused library,” will be ready for testing on the live virus when the Hebrew University’s bio-safety level 3 lab (BSL-3) opens later this year. The two labs are cooperating on one of the most advanced drug discovery projects worldwide against COVID-19.
Multi-Targeting the Coronavirus
Prof. Goldblum and Dr. Nissim are examining a multi-targeting approach, selecting candidate molecules that would block simultaneously at least two of the following:
• The ACE2 receptors, through which the virus must interact to enter the human body
• The spikes on the surface of the virus, which bind with the ACE2 receptors
• The viral protease which enables the virus to multiply and spread within the human cells
The reasons for this approach are manifold. The main alternative would be a cocktail combining 2+ drugs. Yet it is well known that drugs often interfere with one another. Thus, to avoid wasting the precious time and resources in discovering and developing individual molecules that might not work together effectively, Prof. Goldblum and Dr. Nissim are seeking a 2-in-1, or even 3-in-1, molecule. Another reason is that in cancers, bacteria, and viral diseases the cells divide quickly, and targets often mutate – rendering drugs ineffective. It is less likely that two targets will co-mutate in such a way that both will become drug resistant.
It is impossible to overstate the importance of accelerating the search for a drug and vaccine for COVID-19. Prof. Goldblum is initially limiting his search to drugs that either have prior FDA approval or are in pre-clinical or clinical trials (“repurposing” existing drugs). To date, his research group has identified 70 repurposed candidates for blocking at least two of the crucial SARS-CoV-2 proteins. In the next step, the group will search for new candidates among more than 150 million molecules that may provide a cure and could be synthesized or purchased in weeks.
"One significant advantage of computational research is testing drugs in silico (computers) before they get to the test tube. We can test millions of molecules and pick a handful of the best ones, which will be tested against the virus. Computational tools are significantly shortening the discovery time of a cure."
- Prof. Goldblum
The most efficient drugs, those proven to directly kill the virus in cells/tissue, will then be tested on infected mice. Public pressure has resulted in the FDA loosening its regulations, and a successful molecule could be approved for advanced clinical studies and tested on real patients within a few months.
Information about Prof. Goldblum’s research on sugar substitutes is available here.
More information about Dr. Nissim’s SARS-CoV-2 research is available here.
ISE is a generic algorithm capable of solving extremely complex combinatorial problems, such as finding the best solutions to a problem which has an enormous number of possible solutions that are not amenable to full examination by any means. The algorithm examines many possibilities and rejects possibilities in several “rounds,” until the number of combinations is small enough to be fully computed. The significant advantage of this computational tool is its ability to suggest in silico (computerized) good solutions in a very short time, which would be impossible to perform in the lab. For drug research, it has already shortened the time for discovering new candidate drugs from years to months, and even weeks. This innovation earned him the Hebrew University’s Kaye Innovation Award for 2017.
Dr. Amiram Goldblum is a Professor Emeritus of Computational Medicinal Chemistry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem School of Pharmacy - Institute for Drug Research. Among his many discoveries is his unique, prize-winning algorithm, Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE) (see box). While ISE has been used to rapidly identify potential drugs, it can also be used to identify other useful chemical substances – such as sugar substitutes.
Ah, Sugar Sugar, You’ve Got Me Wanting You
Worldwide, diabetes is on the rise. The number of diabetics nearly quadrupled between 1980 and 2014, affecting 422 million people. In addition, diabetes often causes other ailments, including kidney failure, blindness, heart attacks, strokes, and more.
As early as the late 1950s, and rapidly increasing in recent decades, artificial sweeteners appeared on the market. Generally speaking, these can be divided into three chemical “families”: peptides, sulphonamides, and saccharides/glycosides. Despite their chemical differences, they are all much sweeter than sugar, while also leaving a bitter aftertaste.
Sweets for My Sweet (Receptors)
We can taste sweetness thanks to the presence of TAS1R2/TAS1R3 proteins in our bodies, mostly on our tongue and mouth. A similar protein transmits the umami (savory) flavors, and it is entirely possible that sugar and sugar substitutes also transmit their effect through these receptors. In addition, twenty different proteins can sense bitter tastes, and it is assumed that some of them may cause the bitter aftertaste associated with substitute sugars, despite the different structures of the “bitter taste” proteins.
To solve this problem, Prof. Goldblum has constructed computational models that are capable of distinguishing between sweet, umami, and bitter tastes, and then screens millions of commercially available molecules through these models,, searching for those that will affect the sweet receptor alone (and not the bitter receptors).
"By identifying molecules that resemble sugar’s sweet taste but without its negative and dangerous impact on our health, I hope to both offer consumers a better product, while also contribute to the reduction of diabetes worldwide."
- Prof. Goldblum
Once detecting these molecules, Prof. Goldblum will take his findings to the lab, along with a partner from the Technion. They will test the best molecules on mice, examining whether they prefer the substitute or the real thing, as well as the effect of both real and sugar substitutes on their movements, energy expenditure, and metabolism. Needless to say, mice will not have the final say – after all, they taste sweets differently than humans.
Just a Spoonful of Sugar
The first step towards FDA approval is filing an application for an investigational new drug. The molecule will be tested on a small group of healthy people to determine it is not toxic in several dose alternatives. Once approved, a panel of taste-testers will help determine the exact quantity required to obtain the same sweetness as a spoonful of sugar. The new molecule will likely be measured in milligrams, compared with the packets commonly found in restaurants and cafes, which contain 2-4 grams of sugar.
It is not hard to imagine the wide-spread market appeal of such a product. With diabetes on the rise, a reduction of sugar consumption has the potential to save and improve the lives of millions worldwide. Luckily for those with a sweet tooth, dieting may never be easier.
Information about Prof. Goldblum’s research on potential drugs for the Coronavirus is available here.
ISE is a generic algorithm capable of solving extremely complex combinatorial problems, such as finding the best solutions to a problem which has an enormous number of possible solutions that are not amenable to full examination by any means. The algorithm examines many possibilities and rejects possibilities in several “rounds,” until the number of combinations is small enough to be fully computed. The significant advantage of this computational tool is its ability to suggest in silico (computerized) good solutions in a very short time, which would be impossible to perform in the lab. For drug research, it has already shortened the time for discovering new candidate drugs from years to months, and even weeks. This innovation earned him the Hebrew University’s Kaye Innovation Award for 2017.
Seeking to provide its students not only with a stellar academic and professional education but also with assistance in finding suitable and fulfilling employment following their degree studies, in October 2019 the Hebrew University opened the Hebrew University (HUJI) Career Center, which operates in conjunction with the Student Union and partners in the Jerusalem municipality.
In the tradition of universities in the United States, the new HUJI Career Center offers Hebrew University students and graduates a range of services, from individual career counseling, through lectures and workshops designed to hone job market skills, to large-scale mediated encounters with potential employers.
The Hebrew University is seeking to more firmly establish the existing activities, some currently funded from various temporary sources, and to expand the activities and services offered to University students (including targeted services for specific populations such as Arab and Haredi students), thus providing all students with the optimal preparation for securing appropriate, rewarding employment following their graduation.
Yedidia Ashur grew up in an ultra-Orthodox community in Jerusalem. In his mid-teens be began straying from the religious lifestyle, eventually leaving home. He lived on the streets or with friends, worked whatever jobs he could find, and often got by on strangers’ kindness.
In the spring of 2018, when he was 22 years old, Yedidia received a phone call out of the blue. A stranger was on the other side of the line, inviting him to his home for the Passover Seder. This man, an accomplished academic and engineer, had received the number from a friend who had hired Yedidia for an odd job. During the Seder, Yedidia shared his life story. Immediately after the holiday, the man called Yedidia again, drove to pick him up, and took him to the Hebrew University. He helped with the bureaucracy and paperwork – and Yedidia was enrolled in the Joseph Saltiel University Preparatory Center’s program.
"I felt that I’d met Elijah the Prophet."
The Joseph Saltiel University Preparatory School prepares youngsters for academic study, replacing the need to complete the matriculation exams. The program offers six specialized tracks, and graduates receive preferential consideration for admission to the Hebrew University.
The last time Yedidia was in school, he’d been a 14-year-old yeshiva student. Now, he worked harder than he’d ever worked before, studying up to 18 hours a day. Besides attending classes, Yedidia received extensive support from a slew of tutors. He met regularly with an English teacher who gave him private lessons and helped with his homework. During the fall semester he, along with a few other students, met with a math tutor. After getting the hang of it, he left the group and received private math tutoring from an economics student. As he was studying in the Social Sciences track, graduation required writing an original research paper. Yedidia wrote about the influence of globalization on soccer violence, supported by a private tutor with whom he met throughout the process.
In addition, the engineer continued to offer help, academic and otherwise. Yedidia was driven – with his eye set on law school. As a youngster living on the street, he’d been taken advantage of by employers, cellphone companies, banks – because he hadn’t known his rights.
"They say that knowledge is power, and this holds even more true for knowledge of the law. I was taken advantage of because I didn’t know my rights. I want to help others who are in my situation – helping them avoid predatory pitfalls."
Mid-year, Yedidia received a generous grant from a donor, enabling him to work less and study more. He eventually graduated from the Saltiel Preparatory Program and was accepted to the Hebrew University’s Faculty of Law. He began his studies this fall, backed by a generous scholarship that covers his tuition and living expenses. He hopes to double major in education, in order to gain additional tools for working with at-risk youth.
Reflecting back on the last few years, Yedidia recalls how higher education wasn’t even on his street-dwelling friends’ radar. They thought he was weird; today, another friend is studying to be a structural engineer, and others are considering following in their footsteps. As for his personal Elijah, he admits that he’s never done such a thing and will likely never do it again. He and Yedidia remain in close contact.
Since the outbreak of the pandemic, medical professionals have been at the front lines, upholding the Hippocratic Oath and putting their own lives at risk to help and treat COVID-19 patients. While efforts have been made to ramp up the production of the gold standard of masks, the N95 respirator, shortages persist. Many medical professionals report re-using masks for weeks, or even months. Quite simply, constant exposure and less protection means greater risk. Doctors and nurses, who come into contact with the virus daily, may unknowingly spread the virus beyond their wards, if they remain asymptomatic and undiagnosed.
Three Hebrew University researchers are developing a solution.
A Chemist, a Physicist, and a Pharmacologist Walk into a Lab
Prof. Micha Asscher is a chemist. Ordinarily he studies different applications of porous silicon and can control for the size of the pores within the material. Prof. Amir Sa’ar is a physicist. Ordinarily he works with nanostructures and is considered to be Israel’s #1 expert on porous silicon. He also researches various applications of optics. Prof. Ofra Benny is a pharmacologist. Ordinarily, she develops nanoparticles for “smart” drug delivery systems, creating nanoparticles of different sizes, tailored for specific purposes.
The scientists are working to develop a patch (sticker) of porous silicon that medical professionals can place inside their face shields, or potentially even within their surgical/N95 masks. The pores will be 120 nanometers in diameter – a perfect fit for the Coronavirus, guaranteeing both the immobilization of the viruses (see image above) and excluding most other particles (e.g. dust) from capture.
The patch will serve as an alarm system, a Geiger counter for medical staff. At the end of each shift, a technician will examine the patch using a simple optical instrument developed by the researchers to determine whether the pores captured a large number of suspiciously sized particles. If so, the wearer will need to get tested for the Coronavirus and wait for definite results before (hopefully) returning to work.
Needless to say, the scientists are currently working with a dummy nanoparticle – one that mimics the Coronavirus in size but does not pose any danger. Their first milestone, or proof of concept, was quantitatively demonstrating that their optical tools were capable of detecting whether or not the pores had captured any particles (the more particles captured, the higher the optical response).
Thinking Ahead: The Coronavirus and Beyond
Looking ahead, the researchers hope to develop an even more sophisticated patch – one with diagnostic capabilities. They already know how to apply chemical coatings to the pores and will develop one that binds with the Coronavirus – specifically, to the spike proteins on its surface. These “receptors” would selectively trap nanoparticles based on size and structure, resulting in a highly specific diagnostic test.
Taking this a step further, it would become possible to design patches whose different-sized pores are coated in varying chemicals, each capable of selectively capturing a specific disease or pathogen. This would prove invaluable today and for any future pandemics.
Additional applications extend beyond medicine; science is just beginning to understand the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles and their negative impact on our health and the environment.
Once developed, porous silicon patches are easy and cheap to produce, making them ideal sensors for a variety of pathogens and pollutants – in developed and third-world countries alike.
Efrat Dressler spent her postdoctoral year at Wharton Business School with all the benefits of being at one of the best business schools in the world.
“It was only once I was at Wharton, and with the benefit of hindsight, that I really understood the JBS’s requirement for its faculty members to have spent time abroad.
“During my year there I enjoyed the variety of faculty seminars, I attended and presented at numerous conferences and I had the opportunity to meet and make connections with tens of academics from other universities. At Wharton alone there are some 30 professors in the Finance Department and another 25 in Accounting.
“I’ll be applying to the JBS later this year and in the meantime, am continuing my postdoctoral research in Jerusalem, including a couple of collaborative projects with professors that I met at Wharton."
"None of this would have been possible without the generous scholarship I received and I’m so grateful for the experience."
Muluken Demelie Alemu is from Debre Markos, northwest Ethiopia. He holds a bachelor's of science in Crop Production and Protection and a master's of science in Horticulture, both from Haramaya University. Muluken has taught and conducted research at the Ethiopian Ministry of Agriculture and Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research respectively.
Today, Muluken is a PhD student in Field and Vegetable Crops at the Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment. His research aims to establish the basis for developing drought-tolerant, high-yielding tef varieties. Tef is a cereal crop, a major commodity in Ethiopia. To this end, he is growing a large collection of tef genotypes with differing amounts of water, currently in Israel and subsequently in Ethiopia. Muluken will collect and analyze morphological, phenological, and physiological data, as well as conduct DNA analysis to identify drought-tolerant tef genotypes and characterize the mechanisms underlying their superior performance.
"By developing drought-tolerant tef varieties, we will be able to enhance and sustain tef production and productivity. This will help to improve food security, nutrition, and income, especially for those living in drought-prone regions of Ethiopia and worldwide."
Dr. Nadav Kashtan is a systems microbiologist who ordinarily studies bacteria, exploring the viability of microorganisms within microscopic droplets on surfaces or in the air.
Dr. Liraz Chai is a chemist whose research ordinarily focuses on the study of bacterial biofilms. In particular, she studies how salts and macromolecules affect the properties of water in biofilms.
As the Coronavirus spread, scientists began racing to understand the virus, its structure, method of infection, and effect on the human body. Dr. Kashtan and Dr. Chai stopped and asked a much more basic question: How does the virus survive the journey between an infected person and an uninfected person?
While the terms droplets and aerosols are now commonly tossed around, Dr. Kashtan and Dr. Chai are taking their questions to the lab – and applying the full force of their, knowledge, tools, and expertise to better understand how the virus is transmitted between people.
Most virologist and epidemiologists are studying the virus itself – without asking how it remains viable as it is transmitted between people. This is a crucial question for flattening the curve and preventing infections in the first place.
- Dr. Kashtan
Survival Rates in the Lab
In the initial study, which is currently in preprint, Dr. Kashtan compared the virus’s ability to survive in microdroplets composed of water, saliva, and SM buffer (a common laboratory medium) under typical indoor conditions. He discovered that the virus displayed much higher viability rates in dry saliva microdroplets than in the other two media. In other words, outside of the human body, saliva enables the virus to survive suspended in the air (especially in closed rooms) and survive on surfaces.
This study used a different, safer virus, Phi6, as a surrogate for the Coronavirus. (Phi6 infects bacteria, not humans, and is commonly used to study respiratory diseases). The two viruses are similar in size and structure, including having a lipid membrane and spike proteins.
What Is It About Saliva?
To answer this question, Dr. Kashtan joined forces with Dr. Chai. Together, they are now studying the physico-chemical properties of saliva that enable the virus to survive. Dr. Kashtan is contributing his knowledge of microbiology, while Dr. Chai brings her lab’s analytical methods to the table.
We see value in conducting interdisciplinary research, with each of us contributing from our knowledge to combat this virus. We’re also taking a slightly different approach; rather than search for a cure, we’re asking how the virus survives in the environment – in order to reduce morbidity and mortality rates.
- Dr. Liraz Chai
To start, they want to screen saliva samples from different people and assess virus survival rates between them (Dr. Kashtan). Then, in order to understand what characterizes saliva samples with high or low survival rates, Dr. Chai will analyze the saliva components: sugars, salts, proteins, and more. Once they’ve the combined their data, they will check for any correlation between composition and viral viability.
Next, they will take two approaches. First, top-down, they will begin eliminating components of saliva, while bottom-up they will start with water and begin adding components. In both cases, they will measure viral viability every step along the way, until identifying which factor(s) enable the virus to survive outside of the human body.
The next step will be devising a method to prevent the survival of the virus in saliva. Who knows? Perhaps the panacea will be a dispenser that automatically sprays the room – or a special chewing gum?
From the onset of the pandemic, it has commonly been stated that children are immune or will get only mildly sick if infected with the Coronavirus. While the medical community can debate the empirical truth of that statement, it cannot be denied that living through a pandemic is, quite simply, a difficult and challenging experience. For months, adults have been struggling with medical, financial, social, and existential anxieties – to name a few. How have children been affected?
A research team at the Paul Baerwald School of Social Work and Social Welfare, headed by Professor Asher Ben-Arieh and along with research assistants Sagit Bruck and Hamutal Farkash, set out to explore children’s experiences during these difficult times. They employed a survey developed by Children’s World, an international project studying the well-being of children, in which Prof. Ben-Arieh is a core member. A total of 654 Israeli children, aged 10-16, responded to the questionnaire, which was adapted for current events. The team’s findings were published by the Haruv Institute.
The Children Speak
The study shows the importance of including children in the conversation and acknowledging that they too are experiencing stressful times. While the majority of children reported knowing about the Coronavirus and having discussed it with an adult, many wanted to learn more about the virus – or just be listened to.
"Children want to be included and they have opinions; adults can learn a lot from listening to them. We believe that including children and taking their viewpoint into consideration when making decisions at the level of the family, school, community, and country is necessary towards developing plans that meet their needs and perspectives."
As any parent knows, children are sponges, thirstily absorbing information from their environment. Thus, children were nearly twice as concerned about other people getting sick, rather than themselves. This perhaps reflects children’s understanding that they are not particularly at risk.
The study serves as a reminder that children’s lives were also upended by the pandemic. Questions about the merit of remote learning aside, nearly half the children reported that school did not play a significant role in their daily lives and that they were unable to study at home. While the majority of students spent some amount of time each day doing schoolwork and helping out at home (siblings, chores), nearly half the children reported experiencing boredom. The vast majority of children reported playing and socializing at home, with only a tiny minority meeting people outside of their homes.
Compared with a similar study conducted in Israel in 2017-18, children reported feeling less listened to, less satisfied in their lives, and less satisfied in their independence and freedom. In another section, the majority of children reported feeling safe at home, with their family, and in their neighborhoods – but a small percentage did not. These children may be at particular risk from ongoing shutdowns.
With No End in Sight
Studies carried out by other Children’s Worlds partners have shown similar results, indicating that an entire generation of children are going through similar experiences. With no end to the pandemic in sight, and as Israel enters its second shutdown, this study highlights the importance of listening to children and involving them in discussions and decision-making. Parents should ask children about their feelings, perceptions, concerns, and needs in order to best help them cope during these difficult times. Teachers could also increase their outreach, helping children feel cared for and increase their ability or interest in remote learning.
Prof. Ben-Arieh and Children’s Worlds are working on a way to combine data from partner countries in order to gain a broader understanding of how the Coronavirus and social distancing have affected children worldwide. Such a study will also enable researchers to differentiate between universal experiences and the influence of local culture/policies. The research team is actively seeking partners and ideas for collaborative studies.
"Our findings support the idea that children’s well-being may be negatively impacted while their countries fight the pandemic. This includes suffering the consequences of social distancing, remote learning, the absence of a daily routine, emotional and mentally coping with boredom, extreme uncertainty and a dwindling sense of security. We’re especially worried about at-risk children, whose situations may go un-checked as they are far from their school and other forms of support."
"Great breakthroughs can be neither planned nor predicted, and I’m working hard to be prepared for luck."
Professor Gershon Golomb is a researcher at the School of Pharmacy’s Institute for Drug Research, Faculty of Medicine. His expertise is developing drug delivery systems – especially for the treatment of inflammatory-associated diseases. As the Coronavirus spreads around the world, with no end to the pandemic in sight, two of Prof. Golomb’s projects are perfectly poised to help COVID-19 patients.
Project I: “Kill Corona”
Prof. Golomb’s first project is a clinical study using liposomal alendronate to treat COVID-19 patients. Alendronate is a drug commonly prescribed for treating osteoporosis. Prof. Golomb’s innovation was to wrap the alendronate inside a nanoparticle, a liposome (fat) or polymeric-based nano-particle, thus altering the drug’s path; rather than reaching the bone, it now directly targets the body’s innate immunity system – which causes inflammation. In 2002, Prof. Golomb received the Kaye Innovation Award for his discovery that restenosis (the narrowing of blood vessels) is an inflammatory response and for demonstrating how liposomal alendronate could be used to treat patients.
His drug has completed phases I, II, and IIb clinical trials for the treatment of restenosis, and has been proven safe and effective for human use – including with diabetics and cardiovascular patients. Along with his partners at the Hadassah Medical Center and Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Prof. Golomb is now hoping to study whether his anti-restenosis drug could help mildly ill COVID-19 patients. They have already received approval from Hadassah’s Helsinki Committee of to proceed with the trial and are awaiting Ministry of Health approval.
Prof. Golomb has 150-200 vials of the drug from his last trial, and the Israeli manufacturer is willing to ensure they have not expired. They hope to recruit 40+ mildly ill patients and begin testing whether the drug can prevent cytokine storms and intubation.
This collaborative effort is based on employing small interfering RNA (siRNA) for treating the Herpes Simplex virus, by developing nanoparticle that target the virus. Current herpes treatments are limited to alleviating or shortening the cold sore, yet this innovative drug delivery system directly targets the virus – eliminating it completely.
To this end, Fraunhofer has drawn upon its extensive drug library, identifying drugs that might be repurposed to directly target the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Rather than inject patients with large doses and hope for a positive outcome, Prof. Golomb is working to develop a navigator that targets, or has an affinity, to lung cells. If successful, clinicians would be able to administer lower doses with high specificity – and target the Coronavirus directly, while avoiding side effects.
Dr. Yehuda Pollak is on the faculty of the Seymour Fox School of Education. His research focuses on ADHD, decision-making, and risk-taking. As the Coronavirus spread across Israel and public health guidelines went into effect, Dr. Pollak wondered whether it would be possible to identify predictors of non-adherence to the new restrictions.
"Given that the directives were aimed at halting the spread of the virus, non-adherence could have widespread negative health implications."
Dr. Pollak, along with doctoral student Haym Dayan, Itai Berger, MD, and Talpiot College of Education’s Dr. Rachel Shoham, conducted a digital survey, in which 654 people participated during the most stringent phase of the shutdown (late March-early April). Their study was recently published in Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.
Risk-Takers Will Be Risk-Takers…
Some 29% reported not following the guidelines, with a number of factors correlating to non-adherence. Some were pre-existing: young, male, without children, smokers, high levels of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and a history of risk-taking behavior. Additional factors emerged, relating to respondents’ current state: respondents reporting high levels of distress, low exposure to the directives and holding low perceptions of the risk posed by the Coronavirus and the efficacy of the instructions were also less likely to follow the rules.
While these findings may not be surprising this study was the first to show a correlation between non-adherence to the Coronavirus guidelines and ADHD, psychological distress, and a history of risk-taking behavior.
"From a theoretical perspective, this study showed that factors that lead to other risk-taking behaviors seem to also influence non-adherence to the Coronavirus directives."
A Second Study
Dr. Pollak and his colleagues conducted a second study as the economy re-opened (mid-May), in which 2,055 people participated. This study revealed additional factors for non-adherence, including a criminal background and an unhealthy lifestyle.
Interestingly, the second study also showed that among non-adhering individuals, people suffering from underlying medical conditions were no more likely to adhere to the directives – despite their increased vulnerability. The same held for respondents who had lost someone to the virus; intimate knowledge of the risks did not improve adherence.
This study also focused on the importance of social norms; respondents whose surroundings were non-adherent or tolerated such behavior, were also less likely to follow the directives themselves.
Contributing to Theoretical Frameworks
Dr. Pollak sees additional value to this study. As the world copes with an unprecedented medical emergency, these findings contribute to the conceptualization of non-adherence to public health directives using a number of theoretical frameworks, including:
Medical non-compliance – the study of patients not following doctors’ orders
Risk-taking behavior – the study of drug use, hazardous driving, and more
Criminal behavior – criminal activity is both a predictor and outcome of not adhering to such restrictions
Dr. Pollak has presented these findings to the Ministry of Science and Technology, whose grant supported the second study. He dreams of being able to conduct serological tests on the second cohort, in order to examine whether non-adherence to the public health directives predicts future infection and illness.
"Practically speaking, we recommend that policies be developed and adapted for each sector, to enable the authorities to more effectively intervene."
Jordan Hannink Attal recently graduated from the International Master of Public Health program. Her graduate research and thesis focused on the mental health of migrant care workers (MCWs) – caregivers, primarily of south-east Asian descent, who work as live-in help for elderly Israelis. Little did she know that her graduate thesis would be the first in a series of studies, as it captured a snapshot of MCW life before the pandemic struck.
Jordan defended her master’s thesis during the first lockdown and began planning her next study almost immediately – Migrant Care Workers’ Psychosocial Status During Israel’s COVID-19 Lockdown, along with coinvestigators Dr. Ido Lurie, MPH and Prof. Yehuda Neumark (her master’s thesis supervisors). Jordan’s study is currently in review, and she is already working on a third study, focused on the post-lockdown period.
Fostering Trust with the MCW Community
There are roughly 70,000 MCWs living and working in Israel today, but it is not an easy community to access. For her master thesis, Jordan worked very hard to build trust within the community, working with a partner organization Kav LaOved, a non-profit that protects the rights of disadvantaged workers across sectors.
MCWs largely come from countries and cultures where the elderly are cared for out of love. The caregivers see and treat their employers as their own family, and outsiders prodding and questioning them are treated with suspicion.
"Sadly, this suspicion runs both ways: during the shutdown, the media warned Israelis to beware of migrant care workers abusing their beloved grandparents – rather than showcasing their care, empathy, and responsibility during these difficult times. In fact, my study showed that these caregivers displayed more self-discipline and adherence to the restrictions than most Israelis."
Findings: A Cause for Concern
A number of findings emerged from Jordan’s study, pointing to cause for concern, especially as Israel enters its second lockdown this year.
First, the study showed that during the lockdown, MCWs displayed elevated levels of mental distress. According to the World Health Organization, 10% of the population in south-east Asia suffers from mental distress; using this number as a baseline, Jordan was shocked to discover that 40% of MCWs displayed symptoms of depression and anxiety.
Next, the study revealed that 22% of the MCWs lacked food security. There may be many contributing factors, but Jordan highlights one particular aspect of MCWs’ lives that often goes overlooked: when employers keep a strictly kosher home, many MCWs eat out. During lock-down, MCWs may have lacked the language skills, know-how, and perhaps even funds to order in.
Between a Rock and a Hard Place
As noted above, MCWs are protected by Israeli labor laws, but theory rarely meets practice. They are legally mandated to live with their employer, making it challenging, if not outright impossible, to define an 8-hour workday. They are supposed to get a day off (or be paid overtime) but this is left to negotiations between the placement agency, family, and the MCW.
During the lockdown, many families required that the MCW keep their elderly employer inside or demanded the MCW remain home during their time or day off. De facto, this meant that caregivers were denied their time off, leading to a degradation of their mental health. In addition, MCWs who live (illegally) with their employers in assisted living facilities were trapped whenever such facilities declared independent lockdowns.
First, although the Ministry of Health translates Coronavirus guidelines to Tagalong and Hindi, these are poorly distributed and not easily accessible on the Ministry’s website – as a result, most MCWs aren’t even aware of their existence. Needless to say, the dissemination of such critical information would enable MCWs to take necessary precautions and encourage adherence.
In addition, the rules outlining MCWs’ rights, including their work week, time off, and vacations appear online in English alone, presenting a barrier to these workers learning about their rights under the law.
Next, specific Coronavirus guidelines should be formulated for the MCW community, balancing the need to protect their rights while also preventing transmission of the virus.
"Sadly, migrant care workers are an invisible and abused population in Israel today, despite many families heavily relying on their services and devotion."
Looking forward, Jordan plans to pursue a PhD and continue with research. She’s fostered close ties with Israel’s MCW community and feels responsible to continue bringing the challenges that they face to the fore. Her coinvestigators have presented the study’s findings to a committee within Israel’s largest trade union and various national committees. Kav LaOved remains active in the legal field, using the findings from Jordan’s study to guarantee the protection of this vulnerable population.
Shir Filo is a PhD student in computational neuroscience at the Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences (ELSC). She was born and raised in Tzurit, a small village in northern Israel, where she enjoyed belonging to a tight-knit, supportive community.
Drawn to the possibility of solving some of life’s biggest mysteries, Shir studied physics and biology in high school. She eventually chose to major in these two fields as an undergraduate student at the Hebrew University and was accepted to the Etgar track for excelling students in the life sciences.
"After graduating, I realized I wanted to combine physics and biology in order to understand the most mysterious part of ourselves – the brain. Physics allows us to describe and understand the world so elegantly, and I believe that when it intersects with biology, the most interesting questions of our lives can be answered."
Developing a Quantitative MRI
Today, Shir conducts her research in Dr. Aviv Mezer’s laboratory, developing new techniques for quantitative MRI. Currently, doctors estimate, by eye (qualitatively), whether MRI scans look normal. If they suspect a problem, the patient will undergo a painful and invasive biopsy – perhaps unnecessarily.
Yet nearly every other aspect of our healthcare is quantitative. We measure the temperature of our body in Celsius or Fahrenheit and measure the different components of our blood (red cells, white cells, platelets, etc). Why should MRI scans be any different? Shir has come up with a solution. Her biophysical models combine several MRI scans, providing quantitative information about brain tissue, including lipids and proteins.
Shir’s method can provide valuable information about the molecular changes that take place during aging, and it will be helpful for both research and clinical practice. For example, understanding what differentiates a healthily aging brain from an Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s brain, or even to estimate the grade of a brain tumor without a biopsy.
"Not only is ELSC world-famous research center, but it also has a great sense of community, where everyone knows each other and are willing to help. Sometimes ELSC feels like a small village with a unique language and culture. It immediately draws you in and makes you feel like you belong."
Over the course of her studies, Shir has received numerous awards, including prizes from the University Rector and Dean for outstanding academic performance. She has co-published a number of articles and a book chapter.
As geographers, Dr. Yair Grinberger and Professor Daniel Felsenstein love maps. But rather than perusing old, dusty maps of countries yore, or drawing up innovative and creative maps of the world today, their maps are fascinating exercises in asking “What if…?”
Dr. Grinberger and Prof. Felsenstein’s “map” is actually a computerized model of Israeli cities, based on real data taken from official, comprehensive databases. (Their data is on the level of buildings, not individual people). With a few clicks, they can insert an exogenous shock that affect cities – such as an earthquake, flood, or bomb – and map the outcomes. While the short-term effects and needs of such disasters are self-evident, the long-term effects are often more complex.
Their model, named DySTUrbD (Dynamic Simulation Tool for Urban Disasters), does exactly that: it looks 3 years into the future, examining how a city bounces back, or changes, in the aftermath of such a shock. Planners, engineers, budget officers, and first responders at the municipal and national levels can use the model to understand how short- and long-term policies may eventually affect building use, commercial activity, population distribution, transportation, productivity, and labor and housing markets – among others. (DySTUrbD is not a predictive tool).
"Our map helps policy-makers develop emergency systems, examine which options are most effective, and gain a different understanding of the city. Our model can significantly impact policy."
Dr. Yair Grinberger
Pandemic Meets City
As the Coronavirus spread, Dr. Grinberger and Prof. Felsenstein realized that DySTUrbD was not equipped to deal with this new urban crisis. With seed funding from the Ministry of Science and Technology, they began incorporating a classic epidemiological model that simulates the effects of contagion in cities – at the level of individual buildings. Known as SEIR, it tracks (S)usceptible, (E)xposed, (I)nfected, and (R)emoved (recovered or dead) populations.
When integrated into DySTUrbD, this “pandemic module” will generate a spatial-social model of contagion, and Dr. Grinberger and Prof. Felsenstein will be able to begin introducing policies, tweaking factors, and creating various outcomes 3 years down the line.
For example, they will be able to set their model to various pandemic scenarios and examine whether long-term impacts emerge, such as differences among populations (including welfare-related implications), which long-term impacts arise from different short-term policies, and identifying the conditions that make short- and long-term policies most effective.
"Our model is unique in that it explicitly addresses distributional questions: we ask who wins and who gains, in terms of different socio-economic groups. We’ve incorporated normative socioeconomic assumptions, which enables us to see how particular policies might affect poor and rich populations differently."
Prof. Daniel Felsenstein
Looking Forward to a Post-Coronavirus World
Looking forward, Dr. Grinberger and Prof. Felsenstein plan to finish incorporating the SEIR module by the end of 2020. They hope that their research will help decision-makers examine how varying degrees of intervention will play out, including determining whether to restrict the mobility of different populations and whether particular activities should be temporarily shut down. In addition, they can see how long-term policies, such as different forms of financial support to some/all of the population are likely to affect the future development of cities.
A Case Study: A Tale of Two Earthquake-Stricken Cities
In the pre-pandemic days, Dr. Grinberger and Prof. Felsenstein used DySTUrbD to compare how, if at all, an earthquake would differently affect Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. Given the blockage of roads and widespread destruction, a few noteworthy changes took place. First, people became less mobile; in Jerusalem this led to an increase in neighborhood commerce and a decline in the centrality of the downtown area. In Tel Aviv, on the other hand, the market balanced itself out with less dramatic shifts.
In terms of housing, processes of gentrification were evident in Jerusalem. Higher-earning households were able to relocate more easily, even if this meant driving up the prices in lower-income areas and driving out the local population.
Understanding these domino-like shifts helps decision-makers understand the long-term effects of exogenous effects, creating better emergency plans that comprehensively address the needs of all the city’s residents.
Image (edited) courtesy of Yair Grinberger & Daniel Felsenstein, first published in Planning Support Systems and Smart Cities.
Lior Zeevi is a doctoral student in the Department of Psychology. She conducts her research under the supervision of Dr. Shir Atzil, whose lab studies the neuroscience of bonding. Specifically, Dr. Atzil’s lab focuses on the behavioral and neural processes involved in close relationships between partners and between parents and their children.
Ordinarily, Dr. Atzil’s lab employs a variety of tools to study people’s relationships: behavioral analyses, hormonal analyses, neuroimaging, and more. These powerful tools can identify neuro-behavioral mechanisms underlying close relationships, while measuring and quantifying individual differences in such mechanisms.
During the Coronavirus shutdown, a number of quantitative surveys circulated via social media, including questionnaires that gathered data on one’s physical well-being, the stress level of expectant mothers, and even smoking habits. Yet Lior felt that something was missing. This (hopefully) once-in-a-lifetime experience offered the opportunity to capture and study people’s feelings and experiences, in almost lab-like conditions.
She designed an innovative experiment and recruited 64 individuals to record themselves in a video-diary. They shared their daily experiences during the shut-down, including eating and sleeping habits and familial relationships. Lior collected video-diaries from three populations of subjects: single people, couples, and parents with children.
Video-Diaries: A Second-by-Second Analysis
Lior and Dr. Atzil analyzed the video-diaries, coding the second-by-second behavior in each subject. Their study is rooted in the understanding that as a social species, humans communicate their ongoing physiological and emotional demands using behavioral cues. The tools developed and applied in Dr. Atzil’s lab are enabling the researchers to gain a deeper understanding their subjects’ regulatory processes and well-being, using behavioral analyses of the video-diaries shot during the shut-down.
While they are still analyzing their findings, the data initially seem to suggest differences between the well-being of men and women, while also showing an effect of the shutdown on subjects’ relationships. Specifically, single men and fathers showed the worst patterns of self-regulation and well-being during the shutdown. Women seemed to be relatively resilient, showing a higher degree of well-being compared to men. Moreover, as the shut-down progressed, subjects reported a drop in relationship satisfaction. Interestingly, subjects whose video-diaries showed improved patterns of self-regulation remained satisfied in their relationships. This study, which draws upon a rich behavioral dataset, indicates that improved patterns of self-regulation are associated with better relationships, especially during times of crisis.